The history and evolution of numbers - startblog
Today, in the ninety-sixty-sixth post here on Startblog, from the series, Start Tv Company, from the inside out.
The story was marked by great geniuses of humanity. They spent years watching, studying, planning their inventions, and often summed up in the simplicity of the result. Who would have thought that visionaries of such ancient times would help shape the course of civilizations, further transform the history of the world. Follow us and learn the history of the numbers that inspire us daily.
Over 300,000 years ago the caveman needed to tell, even unaware of the appointment. Counts have always existed long before the great names in mathematics created the numbers. We can say that everyone used the numbers to bring their creations to life.
Ancient materials of the time, were found, show through writing in caves and in carved bones what could be the life of these men.
They say they used pebbles for counting. With the amount, the difficulty to store so many pebbles increased, giving rise to the sets.
Each unit was represented by a white stone.
1 white stone = 1 unit
1 black stone = 5 white stones
1 yellow = 10 white or 2 black stones
Another common feature of the century was counting the distance and time for us on ropes, as well as using the human body as a calculation tool, using the fingers and toes.
The peoples according to their reality and instruments of the time, were finding their unique way of counting.
The Sumerians of Mesopotamia grouped by 60 - They used the position represented by symbols for groups with a certain amount.
The excellent Egyptian builders have created their score based on daily experiences. The number 1 = line - 2 = string and 3 = spiral string. There were the imposing numbers, represented by the lotus, sphinx and pharaohs.
"The Sumerians didn't even dream of one million." Only the pharaohs had to use this amount to count their prisoners.
As great assiduous builders, there was a need for precision in the calculation, however, they relied on his arm and created the cubic measurement - the ruler, a simple stick. With that, they built perfect pyramids that marked the story.
In Greece we can cite Pythagoras explorer of numbers. I used group joining to create shapes like 3 the triangle - 4 = square and so on.
We can mention the music that has to do with the combination of harmony. Research was conducted on pots filled with water of different proportions and played.
The result, in each pot, there were variations of melodies and notes. The whole numbers were represented with the perfect melody, the right note = math.
The interaction of the weight of each pot is a perfect one-to-two relationship. The pots played at the same time, in pairs, do not resonate well, they are the broken numbers 1.65.
Pythagoras said that harmony is the combination of whole numbers. With this mathematics would explain harmony, melodies and cosmos. - "The music of the spheres".
Archimedes of Syracuse was a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor and astronomer who loved games.
Archimedes took mathematics to another level.
The Greeks focused on the power and organization of their armies. They used to count their soldiers and the dead. They differentiated them by sections and names.
The Romans had ordered system. Their numbers brought a grand count, were expanded to the world.
We can say that the Romans, Greeks and Hebrews had an efficient numerical system. The letters represented the numbers.
The Mayan civilization counted according to time. They created number systems by symbols and figures.
Eastern Numbers - By the oldest settlement, the Chinese, decimal system, represented by dashes and were engraved in bones and bark.
The numbers used to date were created in India, long before the Romans, millennia ago, used the numbers to ensure the production of flowers.
It was in India that number 0 emerged from the change of position between number 1 and 0. They advanced much compared to other populations.
Over time, the transformation took place, Copernics, Christians and others. By the end of the 21st century the Indians were using the numbers correctly.
According to historical data, Fibonacci - son of an Italian diplomat - had the knowledge of the art of numbers. Art of the nine Indian symbols. The system allowed to calculate quickly, facilitating the process.
In 1202 he wrote the Book of Calculations, the greatest mathematician of the times. It made counting easier for traders to boost their profits. It also created the golden ratio - PHI.
With the resistance of change within the market. After centuries, Fibonacci managed to beat the Indian numbers. The numbers 0 and 1 brought better results and interest. The others were used for latitude calculations in the West.
Evolution has changed the course of history of an era.
The word many and none were used by different civilizations, which had no contact with urbanization. But they could count, without naming the numbers. The numbers were not part of the vocabulary of these peoples.
Represented by the periods of the day, the position of the sun. Aboriginal people playing the didgeridoo - the Aboriginal wind instrument - lightly tapped a piece of tree stump on the instrument for communication with animals. Rooted in their cultures, they shared the chapati (bread) without even knowing the numerals.
In this case, the Sumerians from southern Mesopotamia needed to turn the cone into a number, giving rise to the mathematical count.
Is it because there were so many people living in the same place? We know the importance of organization in cities to live in harmony.
On the basis of science and archeology, history can only be cited with physical evidence and evidence. Bones marked by caveman were found.
A sequence of equal "I's" on both sides of the bone, exactly the same amount of strokes, over 3 billion years ago.
Did knowledge and all creations of the universe exist even before discoveries? Was the "instrument" just missing man so that evolution could proceed? We can say that the cave men, if they had the knowledge, would know that this action was a count.
Thus, based on this solid bone test by scholars, only 20,000 years ago came the number 1. The bone found in Congo resembled the shape of a finger.
A curiosity among some animals is the ability to count to 4.
Natural numbers were a good start, the work of mathematicians led us to discover other types of numbers, for example integers which are an extension of natural numbers that include negative integers, where they become very important in our lives.
We are aware that the numbers came from the human need to show, count, demonstrate and measure.
Since ancient times, they were already used, mainly in commerce, using the numbers to make calculations, nowadays the numbers have become more important due to the great world development, mainly in the commercial and financial sector, making the scholars to improve themselves.
In 1600 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz considered a great mathematician, brought the differential and integral calculus to eliminate human error in the accounts.
The Indian number has spread to Europe and the world.
In the seventeenth century, combinatorial analysis emerged. Born a new mathematical format by Balise Pascal and Pierr de Fermat.
Numbers are symbols that express values, quantities and assist in the demonstration of mathematical calculations, being fundamental in the development for accounting, business balance, among other factors.
They are present far beyond the exact sciences. As we look closely, we can see their use in daily tasks. At school, on the stock exchange, companies, sports, programmers, passwords, prices, age, birthdays, market item list, inventory control and thousands of other examples.
They react directly to the world economy and influence human behavior, whether clockwise or counting days and years. An essential factor in business is knowing the detailed numbers for controlling the entry and exit of profit.